This study examines the place of women in leadership positions in Jewish communal organizations in Philadelphia. It follows two earlier AJC studies that focused primarily on the status of women who serve as volunteers, or lay leaders, rather than as paid professionals in the field. The earlier surveys, carried out in 1975 and 1984, found that over the decade, significant progress was made in enhancing the position of women lay leaders in the Philadelphia community. However, in all spheres of Jewish life, secular and religious, lay and professional, the greatest scarcity of women in leadership roles is found in the secular professional roles. This study found that women have made progress in Jewish communal service, particularly at the entry level. However, at the top, not much has changed since the earlier data showed few women heading area Jewish agencies. Today, Philadelphia, the fourth largest Jewish community in the country, boasts only one woman executive of a major agency. However, nearly a dozen other women can be found in the top positions of small agencies, as executive directors of synagogues or as the head of women's organizations.