The issue of the perpetuation of the Jewish people in other than physical terms is complex. Questions such as the quality of Jewish life, the nature of Jewish culture, and the definition of a Jewish society come to the forefront and to these questions there are a variety of responses. Thus confronting the challenge of building Jewish culture in the Diaspora brings us face to face with many issues about which there is as much disagreement as consensus. There is, however, a basis for affirming that Jewish education is a central concern for Jews everywhere as they attempt to perpetuate a Jewish culture and peoplehood that are continuous from our past, responsive to our present realities, and attuned to the challenges of the future. While Jewish education alone cannot resolve the problems of Jewish estrangement, alienation and assimilation, it has a critical role to play in determining the continuity of the Jewish people. To better understand how Israel and the Diaspora might strengthen Jewish education everywhere, there is a need to analyze the foundations on which Jewish education rests, the goals toward which it seeks to move, and the realities in which it takes place.