The British government maintained popularity thanks to numerous domestic achievements. British-Israeli relations were problematic. Britain introduced measures against racism and promoted ethnic harmony. Political cooperation and economic growth characterized French public life. France celebrated the 50th anniversary of its recognition of the State of Israel. Jewish schools remained the strongest institutions in French Jewish life. The Italian government struggled with immigration and refugee issues resulting from the Kosovo bombings and instability in the Balkans. Italy was Israel's third largest trading partner, after the U.S. and Germany. Antisemitism and other types of extremist activity were cause for concern. Maintaining Jewish life and identity in small, scattered communities was an ongoing problem for the Italian Jewish population. Ruth Dreifuss became the first woman and the first Jew to be the president of Switzerland. Swiss-Israeli relations were tense. Antisemitic sentiment was regularly expressed privately and publicly. Far-right parties attempted to have the antiracism law of 1994 suppressed.
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Kochan, Lionel. Kochan, Miriam. Waintrater, Meir. Sion, Brigitte Gruber. Review of the Year (2000) in Foreign Countries: Western Europe. American Jewish Year Book. American Jewish Committee (AJC),Jewish Publication Society (JPS). 2000: