In late summer 2001, a coalition of Arab and Islamic countries and their allies, along with many nongovernmental human rights organizations (NGOs), used the UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (WCAR), held in Durban, South Africa, to demonize Israel. Powerful voices at the conference sought to brand Israel as a racist state, casting doubt on whether there was a place for it in the community of nations. This perspective found its way, explicitly or by implication, into official conference documents. The message of Durban could easily be construed to justify violence against Israel and its citizens of the kind that the Palestinians had reignited a year earlier in the so-called "second intifada," including suicide bombings. Similar justifications for terrorism would be heard again soon after the conference, in the wake of the horrific events of September 11.