Is there a problem of Jewish demographic survival in America? What role do population factors play in the quality of American Jewish life? How viable is Jewish ethnicity in American society? How do the current patterns of Jewish American demography indicate the future quantity and quality of Jewish life? What are the major demographic trends characterizing the evolution of the American Jewish community, and what do they imply about the future? What may be inferred from the analysis of these patterns about intervention and policies? As a first stem in clarifying the issues underlying these questions and placing in a general context the demographic problems of American Jews, two alternative views or perspectives on the American Jewish dilemma are outlined.