A patient entering a long-term care institution for the physically disabled in the late 1960s faces a different environment than a patient who entered the system during or before World War II. Innovative understandings of anatomy and psychology have produced a new approach to rehabilitation that allows patients to remain in control of their own lives. However, the older assumption that disability is a life sentence of helplessness plagues care institutions. To overcome the apathy of many older patients, the author recommends working with an institution's new patients to develop patient councils that have real influence over treatment. Only after seeing verifiable evidence of changed attitudes toward patient self-efficacy will older patients accept more involvement in their own lives within the institution.
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Sanders, Maurice. Wilkes, Robert. Recalcitrance and Patient-Councils. Journal of Jewish Communal Service. Jewish Communal Service Association of North America (JCSA),National Conference of Jewish Communal Service. Summer 1969: