By the end of 1947, just a little over two years after V-E day, there were in Europe some 46,000 Jewish vocational trainees. It is safe to assume that under more favorable budgetary conditions this number would have at least doubled. Of the 46,000 vocational trainees, which the Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) sponsored either through ORT or through other local organizations, the majority consists of Jews from Eastern Europe. New challenges are confronting them as a result of the rapid nationalization of the economic life of several Eastern European countries. They were mostly engaged in the small trades which are now gone and they are now caught between the hammer and the anvil of the new economics. New planning and integration is needed for Jews even though they may infringe at times on the pride and independence of some of the Jewish organizations engaged directly or indirectly in vocational training.